INTERNET DOMAIN NAMES AND TRADE MARKS UNDER EUROPEAN AND U.S. LAW ab 49 € als Taschenbuch: A comparative analysis. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Jura,
INTERNET DOMAIN NAMES AND TRADE MARKS UNDER EUROPEAN AND U.S. LAW ab 49 EURO A comparative analysis
Consumption of copyright materials such as, books, music, games, has changed dramatically in the internet age. We no more consume them as tangible goods. Instead we consume them as digital goods, which have characteristics different from tangible goods. The first sale doctrine in copyright law has been applied to tangible copyright goods since it was codified in the United States of America s Copyright Act of 1909. But due to the difference in the method of consumption of copyright goods, it is hard to apply the doctrine to digital ones. The question whether it should be applied to digital goods gained prominence when Redigi, a second hand market place for digital copyright goods, was sued by Capitol Records Inc. for infringing its copyright. Is it appropriate to abrogate the doctrine when it comes to digital goods or whether the doctrine should be applied irrespective of the method of consumption, takes centre stage. There are divergent views to this debate. In the European Union, after the UsedSoft case, the view is generally more favourable towards the application of the doctrine to digital goods, whereas, in the United States of America the view is more restrictive. But what copyright needs is a harmony between the divergent views, more favourably towards the views of the European Union, since, there have been technological advancements that do replicate the transfer of tangible goods in the digital domain. The doctrine of first sale is necessary in copyright law, irrespective of the method of consumption, as it tends to achieve a dual purpose. The first is public benefit. This it achieves by allowing more people to have access to literature and art. The second is economic benefit. It increases the overall economic activity by creating a market for second hand goods. But what should be kept in mind is that digital goods do have characteristics that make them easy to copy and distribute, which increases piracy. But should the answer to the problem lie in abrogating the doctrine for digital goods or in technology itself, there will be a problem. This is because once the doctrine has been abrogated, it will be almost impossible to reintroduce it, if and when technology should change and there rises a need for the doctrine. But if you let the doctrine be as it is and let technology accommodate the doctrine then it is much safer.
This thesis investigates the difficult interaction between trade marks and domain names and demonstrates, in light of European and U.S. court decisions, that the current trade mark law has its limits to address domain name disputes. The author analyses the current trade mark law in the U.S. and Europe and identifies the approaches courts have taken to resolve trade mark issues arising in cyberspace. He looks at the international administrative dispute resolution system and discusses potential technical solutions to the current difficulties. The result of this analysis shows that the inherent tension between trade marks and domain names demands a careful application of trade mark law. Especially in cases where both, the trade mark holder and the registered domain holder seem to have a legitimate interest in the domain name, the strict application of trade mark law without considering the peculiarities of the medium Internet does not always lead to fair results.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE, French for "European IP Networks") is a forum open to all parties with an interest in the technical development of the Internet. The RIPE community?s objective is to ensure that the administrative and technical coordination necessary to maintain and develop the Internet continues. It is not a standardisation organisation like the IETF and does not deal with domain names like ICANN. RIPE is not a legal entity and has no formal membership. This means that anybody who is interested in the work of RIPE can participate through mailing lists and by attending meetings. RIPE has a chairman to keep an eye on work between RIPE Meetings and to be its external liaison. Rob Blokzijl was the spokesperson at the start and later the chairman. The RIPE community interacts via RIPE Mailing Lists, RIPE Working Groups and RIPE Meetings. Although similar in name, the RIPE NCC and RIPE are separate entities. The RIPE NCC provides administrative support to RIPE, such as the facilitation of RIPE Meetings and providing administrative support to RIPE Working Groups. It was established in 1992 by the RIPE community to serve as an administrative body.
This book gives an overview of the cross-domain component-based architecture GENESYS that is a candidate for the ARTEMIS European Reference Architecture for embedded systems. Such a cross-domain approach is needed to support the coming Internet of Things, to take full advantage of the economies of scale and to improve productivity. GENESYS supports complexity management through the straightforward composition of systems out of components. As the foundation for robustness, GENESYS supports fault isolation, the selective restart of components after transient faults, and active redundancy. Security is addressed at all levels of the architecture. Energy efficiency is enabled through integrated resource management that permits to individually reduce the power-requirements of components. GENESYS is a platform architecture with a minimal set of core services and a plurality of optional services that are predominantly implemented as self-contained system components. Choosing a suitable set of these system components that implement optional services, augmented by application specific components, can generate domain-specific instantiations of the architecture.
This book identifies and explains the different national approaches to data protection - the legal regulation of the collection, storage, transmission and use of information concerning identified or identifiable individuals - and determines the extent to which they could be harmonised in the foreseeable future.In recent years, data protection has become a major concern in many countries, as well as at supranational and international levels. In fact, the emergence of computing technologies that allow lower-cost processing of increasing amounts of information, associated with the advent and exponential use of the Internet and other communication networks and the widespread liberalization of the trans-border flow of information have enabled the large-scale collection and processing of personal data, not only for scientific or commercial uses, but also for political uses. A growing number of governmental and private organizations now possess and use data processing in order to determine, predict and influence individual behavior in all fields of human activity. This inevitably entails new risks, from the perspective of individual privacy, but also other fundamental rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against, fair competition between commercial enterprises and the proper functioning of democratic institutions.These phenomena have not been ignored from a legal point of view: at the national, supranational and international levels, an increasing number of regulatory instruments - including the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation applicable as of 25 May 2018 - have been adopted with the purpose of preventing personal data misuse. Nevertheless, distinct national approaches still prevail in this domain, notably those that separate the comprehensive and detailed protective rules adopted in Europe since the 1995 Directive on the processing of personal data from the more fragmented and liberal attitude of American courts and legislators in this respect. In a globalized world, in which personal data can instantly circulate and be used simultaneously in communications networks that are ubiquitous by nature, these different national and regional approaches are a major source of legal conflict.
Euro-Par – the European Conference on Parallel Computing – is an international conference series dedicated to the promotion and advancement of all aspects of parallel computing. The major themes can be divided into the broad categories of hardware, software, algorithms, and applications for parallel computing. The objective of Euro-Par is to provide a forum within which to promote the dev- opment of parallel computing both as an industrial technique and an academic discipline, extending the frontiers of both the state of the art and the state of the practice. This is particularlyimportant at a time when parallel computing is undergoing strong and sustained development and experiencing real ind- trial take up. The main audience for and participants in Euro-Par are seen as researchers in academic departments, government laboratories, and industrial organisations. Euro-Par aims to become the primarychoice of such professionals for the presentation of new results in their speci?c areas. Euro-Par is also int- ested in applications that demonstrate the e?ectiveness of the main Euro-Par themes. Euro-Par has its own Internet domain with a permanent web site where the historyof the conference series is described: http://www. euro-par. org. The Euro-Par conference series is sponsored bythe Association of Computer Machineryand the International Federation of Information Processing. Euro-Par 2001 Euro-Par 2001 was organised bythe Universityof Manchester and UMIST.
Euro-Par – the European Conference on Parallel Computing – is an international conference series dedicated to the promotion and advancement of all aspects of parallel computing. The major themes can be divided into the broad categories of hardware, software, algorithms, and applications for parallel computing. The objective of Euro-Par is to provide a forum within which to promote the dev- opment of parallel computing both as an industrial technique and an academic discipline, extending the frontiers of both the state of the art and the state of the practice. This is particularlyimportant at a time when parallel computing is undergoing strong and sustained development and experiencing real industrial take-up. The main audience for and participants in Euro-Par are researchers in academic departments, government laboratories, and industrial organizations. Euro-Par aims to become the primarychoice of such professionals for the p- sentation of new results in their speci?c areas. Euro-Par is also interested in applications that demonstrate the e?ectiveness of the main Euro-Par themes. Euro-Par has its own Internet domain with a permanent website where the historyof the conference series is described: http://www. euro-par. org. The Euro-Par conference series is sponsored bythe Association of Computer - chineryand the International Federation of Information Processing. Euro-Par 2002 at Paderborn, Germany Euro-Par 2002 was organized bythe Paderborn Center for Parallel Comput- 2 2 ing (PC ) and was held at the Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum (HNF).